Early Islamic Passion for Gardens  and Gardening and its Source


In the words of garden historians, the inhabitants of the early Islamic world were, to a degree that is difficult to comprehend today, ‘enchanted by greenery’.[1] In ‘a civilisation, which thought of itself as a garden, gardening was naturally an esteemed art,’ notes Armesto.[2]

‘In a mountain of lush greenery,’ [says Marcais,] ‘Nature  finds its home. Here, no place for vegetal mosaics laid on the ground as in Europe, but pieces of orchards where fruit trees and ornamental plants cohabit in a sort of green disorder where ease and abundance prevail. Trees of almonds, pomegranates, peaches, cherries, oranges, lemons, entangle their branches in the middle where rises the darker obelisk of a cypress tree. Nearly always, there can be heard the sound of wings because here birds find sanctuary. They are never disturbed; they can eat the fruit, or drink the water; they are part of the decor.’[3]

Scott describes how the Muslims:

‘Introduced on a diminished scale the hanging gardens of Babylon. In floral ornamentation they had no superiors. They contrived labyrinths, artificial grottoes, concealed fountains. They traced texts and inscriptions by means of gorgeous blossoms on a ground of living emerald. The intricate designs of tapestry were imitated by an infinite variety of flowering plants, whose tints blended in perfect harmony, like the colours of the material they were intended to represent. They acquired such dexterity in the culture of roses that, at all seasons of the year, they bloomed in profusion in every garden.’[4]


From the far eastern parts, on the frontiers with China , to its western shores on the Atlantic, the land of Islam was united in greenery. ‘Long indeed would be the list of early Islamic cities which could boast huge expanses of gardens,’ Watson holds.[5] Every city had its countless gardens, and on the outskirts were great orchards full of orange and lemon trees, apples, pomegranates, and cherries.[6] In the 10th century, Bukhara  consisted of a walled city measuring a league in every direction, and was surrounded by towns, palaces and gardens, which were in turn encompassed by a wall that must have been 100 miles in circumference.[7] The land around Bukhara was turned into a veritable garden growing not merely a rich variety of fruits and vegetables, but many flowers.[8] In private gardens, around splashing fountains, roses, water lilies, violets, myrtle, iris, sweet marjoram, lemon and orange trees were grown, some in great quantities as saleable crops, particularly for the manufacture of perfumes.[9] Thirty thousand bottles of the essence of red roses were sent each year to the caliph of Baghdad .[10] About 150 miles upstream of Bukhara, lay the city of Samarkand , for many miles around the city the fertile lands extended, watered by innumerable canals.[11] In Turkey, Ettinghausen says:

‘Devotion, if not mania’ for pretty flowers, was prevalent everywhere, and in their multitude; fondness for tulips in 16th century Turkey, in particular, having a profound influence on Europe.’[12]

Further to the West, Al-Fustat, Old Cairo , with its multi-storey dwellings, had thousands of private gardens, some of great splendour.[13] Cairo also had several garden palaces and many courtyards, and this devotion is in the courtyard tradition in several older private houses that remain to this day.[14] Basra , in Iraq , is described by the early geographers as a veritable Venice, with mile after mile of canals criss-crossing the gardens and orchards;[15] Nisbin, also in Iraq was said to have 40,000 gardens of fruit trees, and Damascus  110,000.[16] One Garden in the city of Samarra of the 9th century consisted of 432 acres, 172 of which being gardens with pavilions, halls and basins.[17] In Baghdad , the gardens of the palaces reached down to the Tigris, and from its farther bank the old town looked down from the west with its domes and its palaces.[18] When in the early 10th century two Byzantine ambassadors arrived in Baghdad, they could not conceal their fascination at what they saw:

‘The New Kiosq is a palace in the midst of two gardens. In the centre was an artificial pond of tin (or lead), round which flows a stream in a conduit, also of tin, that is more lustrous than polished silver…. All around this tank extended a garden with lawns with palm trees… four hundred of them… The entire height of those trees, from top to bottom was carved in teakwood, encircled with gilt copper rings. And all these palms bore full grown dates, which in almost all seasons were ever ripe and did not decay. Round the sides of the garden also were melons… and other kind of fruit.’[19]

Equally stunned by the eastern greenery were the incoming crusaders (1095-1291). Dreesbach notes that the passages from the French literature of the crusading period, which describe the Orient, show that the things which impressed themselves on the minds of historian, chronicler and poet were the richness of gardens and orchards and the fertility of the fields.[20] Thus, William of Tyre’s History goes:

‘The plain of Antioch are full of many rich fields for the raising of wheat and abounding in springs and rivulets.’[21]

And on the neighbourhood of Damascus :

‘There are great number of trees bearing fruits of all kinds and growing up to the very walls of the city and where everybody has a garden of his own.’[22]

Crossing into North Africa , where Islamic gardens appeared in the 9th century, [23] one learns of a multitude of gardens, surrounding and inside cities such as Tunis , Algiers , Tlemcen, and Marrakech , places which today are not conspicuous for their greenery.[24] Large gardens of the wealthy had flowers selected for their fragrance, as well as fruit and other trees and vegetables, and water for irrigation was often drawn from a well or from a river by water wheel.[25] These gardens were used for pleasure, and occasionally contained a lake, but there were also smaller enclosed gardens or patios, set out formally, in the Islamic courtyard tradition.[26] In Tlemcen, Leo the African marvelled at the cherries without rivals anywhere else. He saw water wells and fountains gushing with fresh, cool waters, and all around vines growing grapes of all colours and extremely delicate flavours, and cherries so plentiful, and figs so delicious he had never seen the like anywhere else he had been, as well as peaches, walnuts, almonds, melons, and many other fruit.[27] Many luxurious country houses surrounded Algiers, and were renowned for their gardens.[28] A visitor once counted 20,000 gardens, and all around the city grew all sorts of fruit trees; great varieties of flowers, and all sorts of plants; abundant fountains, and in these gardens, among the lush greenery, families used to come and find enjoyment and solace.[29] In Tunisia , where once there thrived urbanity and greenery there is today parched desert land; the region between Gafsa and Feriana, today a desert, had in Islamic times about 200 villages.[30] Tunis, according to an early 16th century Turkish  observer, had fifty thousand houses, each ‘resembling a sultan’s palace’, and orchards and gardens fringe the city.[31] In each of these gardens, were villas and kiosks, pools and fountains, and the scent of jasmine overpowering the air. There were water wheels, too, and such an abundance of fruit people hardly paid any attention to them.[32]

In Spain, writers speak endlessly of the gardens and lieux de plaisance of Seville , Cordova and Valencia ; the suburb of Valencia having so many orchards and flower gardens that the city looked like a maiden in the midst of flowers, the scent of which perfumed the air;[33] the city was called by one writer ‘‘the scent bottle of al-Andalus.’[34] Market gardens, olive groves, and fruit orchards made some areas of Spain-notably around Cordova, Granada, and Valencia-"garden spots of the world."[35] In the 10th century, all the country around Cordoba  was one great garden, and according to al-Maqqari, 50,000 villas were set like stars in the firmament in the countryside all around the city.[36] Inside and around the city there were palaces of recreation in the midst of beautiful ornamental gardens.[37] Murcia, according to Al-Maqqari was ‘filled with scented flowers, singing birds, and water wheels with rumorous sound.’[38] According to the same author, the banks of the Guadalquevir were decorated with fine buildings and beautiful pleasure gardens.[39] The Island of Majorca, won by the Muslims in the 8th century, became under their husbandry ‘a paradise of fruits and flowers, dominated by the date palm that later gave its name to the capital.’[40] The gardens of Almeria extended for a radius of twenty miles north, east, and west from the harbour.[41] The famed pleasure garden of the Nasrid period in Grenada  was Jannat al-Arif (Sp. Generalife) (The Garden Of The inspector Of The Very High Garden), known for its luxuriant trees and the healthiness of its air.[42]



Like every science, and like every single aspect of Islamic civilisation, behind the passion and devotion to gardens and gardening, natural beauty and greenery, was the faith, Islam, and its central element, the Qur’an. Thus, we read in the Qur’an:

‘Surely the God fearing shall be among gardens and fountains.’ (Qur’an 51/15).

‘And those on the right hand; what of those on the right hand?

Among thornless lote trees

And clustered plantains,

And spreading shade,

And water gushing,

And fruit in plenty

Neither out of reach nor yet forbidden,

And raised couches.’ (Qur’an 56/27-34)

And equally:

‘But for him who feareth the standing before his Lord there are two gardens.

Which is it, of the favours of your Lord, that ye deny?

Of spreading branches.

Which is it, of the favours of your Lord, that ye deny?

Wherein are two fountains flowing.

Which is it, of the favours of your Lord, that ye deny?

Wherein is every kind of fruit in pairs.

Which is it, of the favours of your Lord, that ye deny?

Reclining upon couches lined with silk brocade, the fruit of both gardens near to hand.

Which is it, of the favours of your Lord, that ye deny?

Therein are those of modest gaze, whom neither man no jinni will have touched before them.

Which is it, of the favours of your Lord, that ye deny?

(In beauty) like the jacinth and the coral stone.

Which is it, of the favours of your Lord, that ye deny?

Is the reward of goodness aught save goodness?

Which is it, of the favours of your Lord, that ye deny?

And beside them are two other gardens.

Which is it, of the favours of your Lord, that ye deny?

Dark green with foliage.

Which is it, of the favours of your Lord, that ye deny?

Wherein are two abundant springs.

Which is it, of the favours of your Lord, that ye deny?

Wherein is fruit, the date palm and pomegranate

Which is it, of the favours of your Lord, that ye deny?

Wherein (are found) the good and the beautiful-

Which is it, of the favours of your Lord, that ye deny?

Fair ones, close guarded in pavilions-

Which is it, of the favours of your Lord, that ye deny?

Whom neither man nor jinni will have touched before them-

Which is it, of the favours of your Lord, that ye deny?

Reclining on green cushions and fair carpets.

Which is it, of the favours of your Lord, that ye deny?

Blessed be the name of thy Lord, Mighty and Glorious.’

                                    (Qur’an LV: 46-78).


The expression: ‘Gardens  underneath which rivers flow’ is the most repeated expression in the Qur’an (thirty seven times) for ‘the bliss of the faithful.’[43] Picturesque as the Qura’nic descriptions of the heavenly garden may be,’ Shimmel holds, ‘we can only imagine what it may be like.’ Sura 57/21 specifies its extension:

‘And a Garden the breadth whereof is as the breadth of heaven and earth…’

and sura (77/41):

‘…Shades and fountains and such fruits as their hearts desire.’

Descriptions of the heavenly garden, which Schimmel explains, are consistent and give an impression of greenery and gushing fountains.[44]


Faith and greenery also predominate in the words of poets, here the Egyptian Dhu’n-Nun (d.859):

‘O God, I never hearken to the voices of the beasts or the rustle of the trees, the splashing of the waters or the song of the birds, the whistling of the winds or the rumble of the thunder, but I sense in them as testimony to Thy Unity, and a proof of Thy incomparableness, that Thou art the All Prevailing, the All Knowing, the All True.’[45]

Yunus Emre, the medieval mystic of Anatolia, in a little poem, describes Paradise in these simple words:

‘Sol cennetin irmaklari

Akar Allah deyu deyu…..

The rivers all in paradise 

Flow with the word Allah, Allah,

And every longing nightingale

He sings and sings Allah, Allah;

The branches of the Tuba tree

The tongue reciting the Qur’an,

The roses there in Paradise,

Their fragrance is Allah, Allah…’[46]


Garden historians were prompt to see such connections between faith and the early Islamic passion for gardening.[47] When a whole people can anticipate the paradise of afterlife as a garden, there can be little doubt about their enthusiasm for gardens on aesthetic grounds and still less doubt about their high significance in the every day life of those times, says Cowell.[48] Ettinghausen, too, notes that:

‘If the garden was such a ubiquitous art form in the Muslim world, being both socially and geographically extensive, there must have been specific reasons for this propensity…’ and first comes ‘the idea of Paradise as a reward for the Muslim faithful,’ a garden, descriptions of which have ‘played an important part in the Muslim cosmography and religious belief.’[49]

Early Muslims everywhere, Watson holds, ‘made earthly gardens that gave glimpses of the heavenly garden to come.’[50] Every garden was meant to be a little paradise as Ettinghausen put it ‘for the happy owner’ carefully protected from the hustle and bustle of the city and its odours.[51] The spread of Islam saw many gardens established, since not only did they provide climatic relief in those parts of the world, but they granted foretaste of the reward promised to the faithful, as well as a less spiritual but attractive reflection of the traditional royal-pleasure garden.[52] And the earthly visions of Paradise have inspired the construction of gardens; rivers flowing through paradise helping architects to conceive the canals as they flow through the gardens, each part of the garden being in some way a similitude of Paradise.[53]  


Literary and archaeological sources find origins of gardens as early as the 730s, and stretching to the whole Islamic world.[54] In laying out and ornamenting gardens, kings and nobles, rich and poor, theologians and laymen, all participated with equal zeal and enthusiasm and, as a result, each villa, each palace and each town was a delight to the eye.[55] Rulers in the days of Islam, when not versed into scholarly passion, were equally passionate about their gardens; they and their surrounding elites laying out their beautiful gardens in palaces for recreation both on river bank and in mountain valleys and on mountain tops, supplying them with water in abundance.[56] Some such gardens had great splendour, and their renown went beyond their territory, such as al-Mu'tasim’s gardens at Samarra, Iraq ;[57] the great royal parks of the Aghlabid emirs of Tunisia , near Al-Qayrawan , the famous garden of the Hafsid rulers, also in Tunisia;[58] and the gardens surrounding the royal palaces at Fez and Marrakech .[59] In Cairo  the Mamluk sultan Qalawun (Qala’un) introduced Syrian plants into his garden in great variety,[60] whilst Rumarawayh, a Tulunid ruler in the later 9th century, had in his garden palm trees, whose trunks were covered with gold; behind this covering were pipes which brought water up the side of the trees and sprayed it out from various openings into pools.[61] In the Yemen , a number of 14th century sultans became so seriously interested in botanical and agricultural research, one of them wrote an agricultural treatise whilst another specialised in adapting exotic trees from distant places.[62] The Spanish Caliphs, as they did with rare manuscripts, sought plants and seeds of rare species from the furthest places, and with equal determination. Abd Errahman I was so passionately fond of flowers and plants, he sent agents to Syria  and other parts of the East to procure new plants and seeds.[63] He planted a beautiful garden in imitation of the Rusafah Villa of Damascus .[64] By the 10th century, the royal gardens at Cordova became botanical gardens, with fields for experimentation with seeds, cuttings and roots brought in from the outermost reaches of the world.[65] Other royal gardens, in Spain and elsewhere, also became the sites of serious scientific activity as well as places of amusement. A recently discovered manuscript by al-Udhri informs us that al-Mu'tasim, a Taifa king (11th century), brought many rare plants to his garden in Almeria, which even included banana and sugar cane.[66]


This passion for gardening extended to the population at large, the Muslims using the art of planting to beautify their homes and countryside.[67] Ettinghausen notes how there were even carefully planned mini gardens with trees, bushes, flowers and central water basins and fountains in the courtyards of countless private homes, owned by men of very limited means.[68] At Fustat, in old Cairo , multi storey houses were all perfumed with private gardens, and interior courtyards all had their water basins and squares where flowers blossomed.[69] A visitor to Tunis  in 1470, wrote that every citizen had his garden, agreeably pervaded by perfumes from great varieties of flowers, and all sorts of fruit trees; and fountains rising in the middle.[70] In Spain, Scott writes:

‘Love of flowers was a veritable passion among the Spanish Moslems. As they were the greatest botanists in the world, so no other nation approached them in the perfection of their floriculture and the ardour with which they pursued it. The profusion and variety of blossoms of every description were marvellous and enchanting; each had a meaning, by which tender sentiments could be conveyed without the instrumentality of speech; they were associated with every public ceremony and with the most prosaic occurrences of domestic life; they dispensed their fragrance from the priceless vase of the palace; they covered the cottage of the labourer; they formed the daily decoration of the luxuriant tresses of the princess and the peasant; their garlands were the common playthings of the infant.’[71]


Amidst greenery was also found genial creativity. The Muslims, Gothein says, liked artificial culture, different fruits on one tree; different grapes on one vine, which they thought specially pleasing, and they liked to have flowers of unnatural colours, and to graft a rose upon an almond tree.[72] In the Tulunid garden (9th century Egypt ), they planted saffron and other plants; the gardeners cut plants into various figures, as well as the shapes of letters, and this had to be kept regular, lest a single leaf should stick out.[73] A tower was made in open work teak to serve as a bird cage, painted in many colours, with paved floors, and little streams purling.[74] The garden, plants, and animals were all watered with well sweeps, the birds, which filled this house with their sweet songs, not only found baths and food there, but also their nests, in pretty coloured pots prepared for them and let into the walls.[75] There were also peacocks and fowls, and various wild creatures in great numbers running loose.[76] At his castle in Baghdad , Caliph al-Qahir had a garden laid out in a court, only a third of an acre in size, but it contained orange trees brought from Basra , Oman and India , and on the regularly planted trees there gleamed yellow and red fruit, bright as the stars of heaven against the dusky foliage.[77] Around grew all kinds of shrubs, sweet smelling flowers, and plants, and many birds were there: turtle doves, ouzels, and parrots, brought from foreign lands and distant towns.[78] Fruit trees provided cool shade against the intense heat, flowers supplied fragrance and colour, terraces and canals assisted horticulture and irrigation, while cascades, pools, and fountains cooled and moistened the air, providing gentle sound and visual delight.[79]


The garden, a symbol of the promised paradise, has, thus, become a little earthly paradise in itself.  For the early Muslim, lengthy contemplation of such beauty was enough to replenish life and chase away its sorrows and stresses. An owner would take delight in his garden more by sitting on a rug and cushions in contemplation of his pavilion, than by walking through it.[80] In front of his palace Rumarawayh, the Tulunid ruler of Egypt  (r. 884-896), built a pool of 50x50 cubits filled with mercury on which he floated on an air mattress to cure his insomnia; it was reported to be spectacular by moonlight. And to enjoy his view, Rumarawayh even built a domed kiosk in his palace overlooking the bustan (garden) and the city.[81] There, inside his artificial Spanish paradise-the site of Soto de Rojas famous poem[82] could have been chosen by an Arab-he could enjoy in solitude the voluptuous pleasure produced by different perfumes, colours and shapes in endlessly varied combinations: in sum, it was  a place where the refined sensuality of the Muslim sensibility could find full and perfect expression, says Dickie.[83] ‘It is from this quiet scene of beauty found in the Arabian court garden,’ Gothein concludes, ‘that their poetry takes its beginning.’[84]

[1] D. Sourdel: Baghdad : Capitale du Nouvel empire Abbaside; Arabica ix (1962; pp. 251-65. D. Goitein: A Mediterranean  Society; op cit; J. Sourdel Thomine: La Civilisation de l’Islam (Paris; 1968), J. Dickie: Nosta Sobre la jardineria arabe en la espana Musulmane; Miscelanea de estudios arabes y hebraicos XIV-XV (1965-6); pp 75-86. G. Marcais: Les Jardins de l’Islam; in Melanges d’Histoire et d’archeologie de l’occident Musulman; 2 Vols (Alger; 1957), pp 233-44;

[2] F.F Armesto: Millennium; A Touchstone Publication, (Simon and Shuster New York; 1995), p.35.

[3] G. Marcais: Les Jardins; op cit; p. 240.

[4] S. P. Scott: History; op cit; vol 2;  p. 605.

[5] A. Watson: Agricultural, op cit, p.117.

[6] Z. Oldenbourg: The Crusades; op cit; p. 476.

[7] D.R. Hill: A History of Engineering in Classical and Medieval Times (Croom Helm; 1984), p. 26.

[8] F.R. Cowell: The Garden as a Fine Art (Weidenfeld and Nicolson; London; 1978), p. 72.

[9] Ibid.

[10] Ibid.

[11] D.R. Hill: A History of Engineering; op cit; p. 26.

[12] R. Ettinghausen: Introduction; in The Islamic Garden, Ed by E.B. MacDougall and R. Ettinghausen (Dumbarton Oaks; Washington; 1976), p.5.

[13] G. Wiet: Cairo , City of Art and Commerce (Norman Oklahoma; 1964), pp. 17; 19; 22.

[14] J. Lehrman: Gardens ; Islam; in The Oxford Companion to Gardens; ed by G. Jellicoe et al (Oxford University Press; 1986), pp. 277-80 at p. 279.

[15] Al-Duri: Tarikh al-Iraq  (Baghdad ; 1948), pp; 26.8.

[16] Yaqut: Muaajam; op cit; vol iv; p. 787.

[17] In R. Ettinghausen: Introduction; op cit; p. 3.

[18] M.L. Gothein: A History of Garden Art (Hacker Art Books; New York; 1979), pp. 146-8.

[19] E. Herzfeld: Mitteilungen uber die Arbeiten der zweiten Kampagne von Samarra,’ Der Islam 5 (1914); 198.

[20] Dreesbach: Der Orient; 1901; pp. 24-36. In J.K. Wright: The Geographical Lore of the Time of the Crusades (Dover Publications; New York; 1925), p. 238.

[21] Historia; IV; 10; Paulin Pari’s edit.; vol I; pp. 134-5 in J. K. Wright: The Geographical Lore; p. 239.

[22] Historia; XVII, 3; Paulin Pari’s edit.; vol ii; p. 141 in J. K. Wright: The Geographical Lore; p. 239. 

[23] J. Lehrman: Gardens ; Islam;  op cit; p. 279.

[24] Torres Balbas: La Ruinas de Belyunes o Bullones; Hesperis Tamuda v (1957) 275-96; 275 ff; G. Marcais: les Jardins de l’Islam; op cit.

[25] J. Lehrman: Gardens ; op cit; p. 279.

[26] Ibid.

[27] Leon The African in G. Marcais: les Jardins; op cit; p. 241.

[28] J. Lehrman: Gardens ; Islam;  op cit; p. 279.

[29] In G. Marcais: Les Jardins; op cit; p. 241.

[30] A. Solignac; p. 382; in A.M. Watson: A Medieval Green Revolution; op cit; Note 44; p. 56.

[31] S. Soucek:  Tunisia  in the Kitab-I Bahriye of Piri Reis,  Archivum Ottomanicum, Vol 5,  pp 129-296. p. 197.

[32] Ibid.

[33] S.M. Imamuddin: Muslim Spain (Leiden; E. J. Brill; 1981), p.85.

[34] Al-Maqqari: Nafh al-Tib; op cit; vol I; p.67;  H. Peres: La Poesie Andaluse en Arabe Classique au Xiem siecle (Paris; 1953), pp. 115ff.

[35] W. Durant: The Age of Faith; op cit; p. 298.

[36] Al-Maqqari in E. Hyams: A History of Gardens  and Gardening  (J.M. Dent and Sons LTD; London; 1971); p. 82.

[37] Al-Maqqari: Nafh al-Tib; op cit; pp. 211-2.

[38] J. Harvey: Medieval Gardens ; op cit; p. 38.

[39] Al-Maqqari: Nafh al-Tib; vol I; I; pp. 57-8.

[40] W. Durant: The Age of Faith; op cit; p. 298.

[41] S.P. Scott: History; op cit; vol 2;  614.

[42] Al-Maqqari: Nafh al-Tib;  II; p. 360; n. 12.

[43] A.Schimmel: The Celestial garden in Islam; in The Islamic Garden, op cit; pp 13-39; at p. 15.

[44] Ibid; p. 17.

[45] Ibid; p. 24.

[46] Yunus Emre Diwani; ed A. Goplinarli (Istanbul; 1943), Nr. 477.

[47] G. Marcais: Les Jardins; op cit; J. Dickie: Nosta Sobre la jardineria arabe en la espana Musulmane; Miscelanea de estudios arabes y hebraicos XIV-XV (1965-6); pp 75-86.

[48] F.R. Cowell: The Garden as a Fine Art (Weidenfeld and Nicolson; London; 1978), p. 75.

[49] R. Ettinghausen: Introduction, op cit, at p. 6.

[50] A.M. Watson: Agricultural; op cit; p.117.

[51] R. Ettinghausen: Introduction; op cit; p. 7.

[52] J. Lehrman: Gardens ; Islam; op cit; p. 278.

[53] A.Schimmel: The Celestial, op cit; p. 15.

[54] R. Ettinghausen: Introduction; op cit; p. 3.

[55] S.M. Imamuddin: Muslim Spain; op cit; p.85.

[56] Ibid.

[57] H. Viollet: Description du Palais de al-Mutassim a Samarra; in Memoires de l’Academie des Inscriptions et des Belles Lettres; XII : 1913.

[58]A. Solignac: Recherches sur les installations hydrauliques de kairaouan et des Steppes Tunisiennes du VII au Xiem siecle, in Annales de l’Institut des Etudes Orientales, Algiers , X (1952); 5-273. pp 218 ff; G. Marcais: Les Jardins; op cit; p. 237.

[59] G. Marcais:  Les Jardins; op cit; p. 237.

[60] Al-Maqrizi, Ahmad Ibn Ali. Al-Mawaiz wa Alitibar fi dhikr al-Khitat wa-Al-athar. Edited by Ahmed Ali al-Mulaiji. 3 Vols, (Beirut: Dar al Urfan. 1959), II; op cit; p. 119.

[61] Ibid; 96.

[62] M. Meyerhof: Sur un traite d’agriculture compose par un sultan Yemenite du XIV em siecle; Bulletin de l’Institut d’Egypte; xxv (1942-3) 54-63; xxvi (1943-4); 51-64; (1942-3) p.58;  and (1943-4) pp. 52; 57.

[63] A. Watson: Agricultural, op cit, p.118.

[64] S.M. Imamuddin: Some Aspects of the Socio-Economic and Cultural History of Muslim Spain (Brill; 1965), p. 82.

[65] Al-Maqqari: Nafh al-Tib;  ii: 14-5; H.Peres: Le Palmier en Espagne Musulmane; In Melanges Geodefroy Demombynes (Cairo ; 1935-45), pp. 224-39.

[66] Al-Udhri: Nusus an al-Andalus; ed. Abd al-Aziz al-Ahwani (Madrid; 1965), p. 85.

[67] S.M. Imamuddin: Some Aspects;  op cit; p. 82.

[68] R.Ettinghausen: The Islamic; op cit; p.5.

[69] G. Marcais: Les Jardins; op cit; p. 236.

[70] Brunschvig, quoted in G. Marcais: Les Jardins; op cit; p. 242.

[71] S.P. Scott: History, op cit,  vol 2;  p.651.

[72] M.L. Gothein: A History of Garden Art (Hacker Art Books; New York; 1979), p. 150.

[73] Ibid.

[74] Ibid.

[75] Ibid.

[76] Ibid.

[77] Ibid; p. 151.

[78] Ibid.

[79] J. Lehrman: Gardens ; Islam; op cit; p. 278.

[80] Ibid.

[81] Doris Behrens-Abuseif: Gardens  in Islamic Egypt : Der Islam Vol 69 (1992); pp 302-312; at p. 304:

[82] Parayso cerrado para muchos, jardines abiertos para pocos ‘Paradise closed to many, gardens open to few.’

[83] J. Dickie: The Islamic Garden; op cit; in The Islamic Garden (Ed by E.B. MacDougall and R. Ettinghausen) op cit; pp. 87-106; p. 105.

[84] M.L. Gothein: A History of Garden Art; op cit; p. 151.